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Migration Algorithms

Extended Curved Ray Pre-Stack Time Migration
Using a high order travel time equation to perform Prestack Time Migration on your data vastly improves the image quality! As the order of the approximation increases, the salt flanks become more accurate and well defined.

  • Improve Overall Quality of Image
  • Improve Fault Definition
  • Improve Sharpness of Salt Flanks
  • Improve Stratigraphic Reflector Definition
  • Improve Steeply Dipping Reflectors

Through our comprehensive Reservoir Seismic Services, our New Extended Curved Ray (6th Order) Prestack Kirchhoff Time Migration allows you to get more from your data!

Kirchhoff Pre-Stack Time Migration (KPSTM)
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Ray Traced Anisotropic Pre-Stack Time Migration
Prestack Time Migration (KPSTM) is an excellent imaging tool in situations where strong or very complex subsurface velocity fields are not expected. New implementations are capable of imaging very steep dips in excess of 90° and account for anisotropy.

KPSTM is a full Kirchhoff diffraction summation algorithm that includes advanced anti-aliasing filters and is capable of imaging turning waves. Travel times are computed with our anisotropic 1D ray tracer through the velocity model.

This effectively accounts for  all (offset) orders of  moveout and is capable of accurately imaging extremely large offset, very steep dips and remain AVO friendly

Anisotropy is easily incorporated into this algorithm further enhancing its usefulness. A unique feature is the ability to account separately for large offset effects and the true earth anisotropy.

PSTM gathers are still the industry standard for AVO and attribute work. Their reliability, speed and robustness compensates for the simplifying assumptions used.

Kirchhoff Pre-Stack Time Migration (KPSTM)
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Anisotropic PSTM (A-KPSTM)
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Orthorhombic Anisotropic Pre-Stack Time Migration

It makes perfect sense to image the Earth with anisotropic prestack time migration since the subsurface is not isotropic. Seismic anisotropy, vertical and horizontal anisotropy (VTI and HTI), is often induced by faults, fractures, and heterogeneity as well as influenced by the azimuthal orientation and intensity of these geological features.

Orthorhombic prestack time migration is the perfect imaging tool to treat both VTI and HTI simultaneously and provide proper image for prospecting and drilling purposes.


VTI and HTI produce a complex orthorhombic non-hyperbolic moveout. An advanced surface fitting algorithm is developed to determine VTI and HTI parameters simultaneously by means of a Least Square Inversion (LSQ) technique to fit velocities to 3D velocity ellipsoid using an Orthorhombic Moveout Equation. Furthermore, the only way to image anisotropic Earth and fractured reservoirs, and meanwhile correct simultaneously for VTI and HTI and flatten simultaneously the gathers is to perform orthorhombic prestack time migration with Offset Vector Tiles (OVT) processing technology for wide azimuthal data (land or marine).

Kirchhoff Pre-Stack Time Migration (KPSTM)
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Anisotropic PSTM (A-KPSTM)
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pdfExtracting true anisotropic values using raytraced two parameter velocity analysis© (presented at EAGE, June 2013)

pdfShale play characteristics and correlation with anisotropic logs - a case study of Eagle Ford Shale in Texas© (presented at EAGE, June 2013)

pdfSimultaneous determination of anisotropic parameters in PSTM© (presented at SEG, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, November 2012)

pdfOrthorhombic Migrations for Imaging Fractured Reservoirs© (presented at SBGf, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, August 2011)

Ray Traced Anisotropic PSTM
Orthorhombic Migration - Imaging Fractured Reserviors

 

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